Toby C. Chai, MD

Professor of Urology and of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences; Vice Chair of Research, Department of Urology; Co-Director, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery Program

Physician Biography

Toby C. Chai, MD, received his BA from Johns Hopkins University, MD from Indiana University School of Medicine. He did his urology residency at University of Michigan Medical Center. He then completed a 2-year AFUD (American Foundation for Urologic Diseases) Research Scholar fellowship at the University of Virginia. Dr. Chai was a urology faculty at University of Maryland School of Maryland over the last 15 years and holder of the John D. Young Professorship. He recently moved to Yale University in January 2013 to become the Vice Chair of Research in the Department of Urology and Co-Director of the Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery clinical program at Yale-New Haven Hospital.

Dr. Chai has an active research interest in urinary incontinence and bladder physiology. He was a Principal Investigator in the NIH Urinary Incontinence Treatment Network (UITN) which published several landmark articles in the New England Journal of Medicine related to evaluation and management of stress urinary incontinence. Dr. Chai has been investigating how bladder urothelial cell pathophysiology affects bladder function has contributed important foundational articles in this field. He has published over 100 papers and reviews and chapters.

Dr. Chai's laboratory investigates bladder urothelial cellular physiology testing the hypothesis that certain urothelial signaling mechanisms are critical to regulating micturition and continence function of the bladder. Techniques used in his laboratory include single cell micropuncture (patch-clamp) electrophysiology and cellular calcium microfluorimetry. His laboratory is currently working on creating a urothelially-restricted transgenic mouse, based on data he has acquired from human bladder urotheilal cells from overactive bladder (OAB) subjects, to assess whether there is altered bladder behavior in this animal, as well as whether there is altered urothelial cellular physiology, mimicking what his lab has published from cells from OAB subjects. His ultimate goal is to effectively perform translational research reflecting true bedside-to bench-to bedside science.

He has been nationally recognized with key awards including the recipient of the 2001 Young Investigator Award from the SBUR (Society for Basic Urologic Research), the 2005 Paul Zimskind Award from SUFU (Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine & Urogenital Reconstruction), and recently, the 2013 Victor A. Politano Award from the AUA (American Urological Association) for his outstanding work in the treatment of urinary incontinence and innovations in bladder research. He is the Basic Science Section Editor for Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery Journal and is an Assistant Editor for The Journal of Urology. He serves on the Editorial Board for theAmerican Journal of Physiology – Renal.

Clinical Interests

  • Urinary Bladder Diseases
  • Urinary Bladder Fistula
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
  • Ureteral Obstruction
  • Urinary Diversion
  • Urinary Fistula
  • Urinary Incontinence
  • Urinary Incontinence, Stress
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Urodynamics
  • Urology
  • Women's Health
  • Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
  • Urinary Bladder, Overactive
  • Urinary Tract Physiological Processes
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

Patient Care

Accepts new patients? Yes
Patient Type: Adult
Referrals: From patients or physicians

Patient Care Organizations

Urology: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery Program | General Adult Urology | Neurourology/Neurogenic Bladder | Reconstructive Urologic Surgery & Trauma Program

Urogynecology & Reconstructive Pelvic Surgery

WHRY Pilot Project Program Investigators

Yale Cancer Center: Prostate & Urologic Cancers Program

Yale Medicine

Office of Cooperative Research

Board Certifications

  • Urology AB of Urology (1998)

  • Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery AB of Urology (2015)

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Contact Info

Toby C. Chai, MD
Patient Care Locations
Orchard Medical CenterOrchard Medical Center
330 Orchard Street, Ste Suite 116

New Haven, CT 06511
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Yale UrologyYale Physicians Building
800 Howard Avenue, Ste 3rd Floor

New Haven, CT 06519
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Mailing Address
UrologyPO Box 208058
New Haven, CT 06520-8058
Scanning EM of apical urothelial

Apical urothelial cells seen from the luminal side.